Normal & Abnormal Bite


Abnormal immobility or fusion of the tooth to the surrounding bone. An ankylosed tooth does not move by orthodontic forces.

Crossbite With Functional Shift

Crossbite of Front Teeth With Functional Shift

When the upper front teeth contact edge to edge and the patient needs to shift the lower jaw forward to be able to chew.

Crossbite of Back Teeth With Functional Shift

When the upper jaw is narrow and patient needs to shift the lower jaw to one side to be able to chew.

Crossbite Back Teeth w/Functional Shift

Class 1 Crowding – Malocclusion


Malalignment of teeth caused by a lack of space for teeth to be straight.

Ectopic Eruption

Teeth growing into the mouth in an abnormal spot.

Upper Molar Ectopic Eruption – Malocclusion

Canine Eruption – Normal v Ectopic


Teeth growing into the mouth in a normal spot.

Gummy Smile

Excessive exposure of upper gum during a full smile.

Gummy Smile Treatment by Laser

Impacted Canine Boney Exposure

Impacted Tooth

Total or partial lack of eruption of a tooth.


The relationship between the upper and lower teeth as they bite together.

Normal Occlusion


Lack of contact between a few teeth while other teeth are in contact.

Deepbite Malocclusion


Vertical overlap of the lower front teeth by the upper front teeth.


The horizontal projection of the upper front teeth beyond the lower front teeth.

Overjet – Class 2 End On Malocclusion

Small Lateral Incisor Treatment

Peg Lateral

Small upper front tooth.

Root Resorption

An abnormal process during which roots become shorter.

Supernumerary Tooth

An extra tooth, often malformed or erupting abnormally.

Transitional Dentition

AKA mixed dentition, a phase from baby teeth to permanent teeth. In this phase, both dentitions are present in the mouth.

Teeth Eruption Pattern

Crossbite – Class 3 Malocclusion


AKA front crossbite, an abnormal bite when lower front teeth are ahead of the upper front teeth.

Orthodontic Parts


Any orthodontic device that we use to move your teeth.


The metal wire places into the braces.

Parts of Braces Pt 1

Ortho Band Placement on a Molar


A metal ring made of stainless steel that is cemented to your molars. Bands provide a way to attached brackets to your molars.


Prevents upper and lower teeth from occluding completely.

Posterior Bite Block

Clear Braces v Metal Braces


AKA braces. Metal or ceramic pieces that are secured onto the teeth to hold the archwire in place.

Coil Spring

A spring that fits between brackets and over the archwire to open space between teeth.


AKA rubber bands. A small band made of rubber that is hooked between different brackets to provide pressure to move teeth to a new position.

Overjet (Overbite) – Rubber bands

Ligature Ties

AKA colors. The tiny colored rings made of rubber that fits around a bracket to hold the archwire in place.

Playing Sports in Braces


A removable appliance made of rubber that protects the teeth from injury when participating in sports.

Palatal Expansion

An orthopedic process to widen the upper jaw when it is narrow.

Palatal Expander

Orthodontic Procedure


An appliance that is worn after braces are removed to hold teeth in their final position.

Retainer – Essix Type

Separator – Rubber Type


An elastic ring placed between teeth to separate them.


The process of refreshing orthodontic forces to move teeth to a new spot.

Bonding - Indirect Technique

Placing braces on a plaster model of the teeth first and transferring them to the teeth using a lab fabricated template.

Putting Braces On – Indirect Technique

Putting Braces On – Direct Technique

Bonding - Direct Technique

Placing braces directly on the teeth.


Removing brackets off of the teeth.

Removing Braces or Debond



Removal of a tooth.


The surgical removal of a frenum, a fold of fibers connecting the upper lip to the gum.

Laser Frenectomy

Gingiva Graft

A surgical procedure to patch the gum where it lacks proper width and height.


An imprint of the teeth made by biting into a soft material that hardens into a mold of the teeth.